Hacking has been a part of our world for a long time and it is a very broad discipline. The first event of hacking had taken place at MIT in 1960 and the term “Hacker” was originated.
Ethical hacking is a legal way of working in organizations to protect organizations from data breaches for a good reason. Now that everything will be digital, the number of black hat hackers will increase exponentially. Because of that, the demand for certified ethical hackers is on the rise.
This Ethical Hacking tutorial for beginners will we will take you through the various concepts.
What is Hacking?
Hacking refers to stealing and modifying information by exploiting weaknesses in a computer network to obtain unauthorized access to information.
What is Ethical Hacking?
Ethical hacking is a legal way of detecting the vulnerabilities of the systems, and this is also called penetration testing.
An ethical hacker is a person who works for organizations and protecting from a malicious hacker with the permission of authority to test the vulnerability using his skills and ability.
Types of Hacking
We can define hacking into different categories and they are:
- Network Hacking: Gathering the information about the network with intent to harm the network system using tools like Telnet, NS lookup, ping, etc.
- Website Hacking: Taking access to databases, web servers without permission to make changes in the information for unethical purposes.
- Computer Hacking: Taking unauthorized access to a computer and steals information like computer ID, the password for unethical purposes by applying the black hat technique.
- Password Hacking: Unauthorized access to secret passwords from databases that have been stored in the computer system is password hacking.
- Email Hacking: Taking unauthorized access to an email account and using it is email hacking.
Types of Hackers
- Black Hat Hacker: Black hater is highly skilled who illegally hacks into a system.
- White Hat Hacker: A White Hat Hacker, also known as an Ethical Hacker who discovers vulnerabilities in a computer network legally.
- Gray Hat Hacker: A Gray Hat Hacker is a combination of both black and white hat hackers.
- Script Kiddies: An amateur hacker who does hacking to generally impress people.
- State-sponsored Hackers: State-sponsored hackers are sponsored by govt to gain secret information and damage the information system of other nations.
Ethical Hacking Terminologies
- Vulnerability: A bug or glitch in the system.
- Phishing: It is a technique that is used to trick the user to get crucial information like sensitive passwords, credit card information.
- Encryption: It is a process in which data is encrypted into human-readable data to demand ransom from the user.
- Brute force attack: This kind of attack is called an error attack where software is used to guess the password.
- Bot: It is a software robot that reads the content and information of the user from the scripted code to access the sensitive data of the user.
- DDoS attack: DDoS attacks are done by software bots by sending several requests to the website at a time for accessing the website which in turn causes overloading and thereby resulting in the shutting down of the servers.
- SQL injection: This is used to get sensitive information from the database.
- Spam: Spam is also called junk wherein the introduction to malware can happen easily which results in phrasing.
Ethical Hacking Tools
- John Ripper: Password cracker tool used for cracking the password.
- Metasploit: This is a tool that helps in software vulnerabilities.
- Nmap: Network mapper ( Nmap) is an open-source tool used for the monitoring of the network like detecting port, network mapping.
- Burpsuite: This is a tool used for the security testing of web applications like scanning applications, checking vulnerability.
- Nikto: This tool is used as a scanner to scan the vulnerability and does the server configuration checks.
Ethical Hacking – Skills
As responsible for the hacker Should be:
- Very efficient programming knowledge for the expert hacker
- Networking knowledge for an expert hacker
- Database related knowledge for an expert hacker
- Prebuilt hacking tools become expert in hacking
Ethical Hacking – Process
The ethical hacking process is divided into 5 types, they are:
- Reconnaissance: This is the first phase where Ethical hackers collect all possible information of the target using tools such as Nmap, Maltego, etc…
- Scanning: This is called an investigation phase where Ethical hackers analyze the target network or machine for vulnerabilities that can be exploited using tools such as Nexpose, Nessus, and NMAP.
- Gaining Access: the vulnerability area is located and an attempt will be done to exploit the network by using the Metasploit tool
- Maintaining Access: Ethical hackers would have gained access to the targeted network or machine and they try to maintain them for future needs by using the Metasploit tool
- Clearing Tracks: This is the phase where Ethical hackers try to remove all the log activities that had taken place during the hacking process.
- Reporting: This is the documentation submitting process where the Ethical hacker records the complete process like findings, tools used, success rate, exploitation process, and vulnerabilities found.
What is meant by a security threat?
An ethical hacker needs to deal with security threats regularly. Security threat has a potential to damage the organization as a whole.
There are two types of security threats:
Someone stealing a computer system that has valuable data is a physical threat.
Physical threats are divided into three categories.
- Internal: Hardware fire, internal hardware failovers, etc
- Human: accidental errors, etc
- External: floods, earthquakes, fires, etc
The non-physical threat is something which arises in the form of virus, worms, etc.
The common types of non-physical threats are:
- Denial of Service Attacks
- Unauthorized access to computer data
Advantages of Hacking
- Ethical hacking helps in fighting against cyber terrorism and national security breaches.
- It helps to take preventive action against hackers.
- It helps to build a system that prevents any kinds of penetration by hackers.
- It helps to identify and close the open Loopholes in a computer system or network
Disadvantages of Hacking
- Massive security breach.
- Unauthorized system access to private information.
- Privacy violation.
- Hampering system operation.
Ethical Hacking Skills
- Computer Networking Skills
- Computer Skills
- Linux Skills
- Programming Skills
- Basic Hardware Knoweldge
- Reverse Engineering
- Cryptography Skills
- Database Skills
- Problem-solving Skills
Ethical hacking has a boundary, and one needs to work within the given boundaries never intrude or attack any computer or network without the required permission.
If you are looking to start your career in ethical hacking, it is advisable to go for the learn ethical hacking course to become an expert.